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Urticaria Crónica Espontánea

Targeted Therapy for Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria: Rationale and Recent Progress

By | Artículos seleccionados, Selected articles

Ana M. Giménez‑Arnau, Andaç Salman

Drugs . 2020 Aug 28. doi: 10.1007/s40265-020-01387-9. Online ahead of print.

Chronic spontaneous urticaria is characterized by wheals, angioedema, or both for at least 6 weeks and can last for a long time, up to 5 years. The effects of chronic spontaneous urticaria on quality of life are comparable to psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, or even ischemic heart disease.

Antihistamines continue to be the first choice for treatment of urticaria, however rates of response are low (ranging from 38.6% in standard doses to 63.2% in higher doses), some patients don’t experience a complete of symptoms. The use of omalizumab has shown a major advance in treating patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria, however, there is a subgroup of patients who have a partial or even lack of response to omalizumab.

Some of the upcoming targeted therapies for chronic spontaneous urticaria include:

  1. anti-IgE antibodies, such as ligelizumab, a monoclonal antibody directed against the Cε3 domain of IgE and which has shown a six- to ninefold greater potency in vivo compared to omalizumab; UB-221, another monoclonal antibody against IgE with up to eightfold greater affinity for free IgE, compared to omalizumab; quilizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against membrane-bound IgE.
  2. Anti-Siglec-8. Siglecs are a transmembrane family with regulatory effects on intercellular and intracellular signaling, with Siglec-8 having expression on eosinophils and mast cells.
  3. Bruton’s Tyrosine Kinase (BTK) inhibitors. BTK is a tyrosine kinase expressed in hematopoietic cells, including macrophages, mast cells and basophils. BTK inhibitors are used to treat different malignancies of B-cell origin. Ibrutinib, dasatinib, AVL-292 and CNX-774 effectively suppressed IgE-induced activation and histamine release from basophils and mast cells.
  4. Chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expresses on Th2 (CRTH2) inhibitors; Spleen Tyrosine Kinase (SYK) inhibitors; Anti-CD20; Anti-IL-1; Anti-IL-4/13; and Anti-IL-5.

The future treatment of chronic urticaria will probably change once potential new treatments are completely developed.

This document is only available for registered healthcare professionals

optimizacion evaluacion urticaria

Optimizing Value in the Evaluation of Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria: A Cost-effectiveness Analysis

By | Artículos seleccionados, Selected articles

Shaker M, Oppenheimer J, Wallace D, Lang DM, Rambasek T, Dykewicz M, Greenhawt M.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2019 Nov 18. pii: S2213-2198(19)30938-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2019.11.004. [Epub ahead of print]

Chronic spontaneous urticaria can occur in both children and adults, however it is more common in adults, affecting approximately 1% of the population. It usually has an impact in quality of life, sleep and anxiety.

The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of routine laboratory testing for secondary causes of chronic spontaneous urticaria.

Patients with more than 20 years old, over a 10-year time horizon, were randomized to receive screening laboratory testing or a no-testing approach. Laboratory results were derived from previously published retrospective studies of patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria. Cost-effectiveness was evaluated at a Willingness to Pay (WTP) threshold of $100,000/quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) using the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) in people with untreated urticaria, and patients treated with antihistamines, cyclosporine, or omalizumab.

Average laboratory costs per simulated urticaria patient were $572.97, with only 0.16% (SD, 3.99%) of tests resulting in improved clinical outcomes. Testing costs per laboratory-associated positive outcome were $358,052 (no therapy), $357,576 (antihistamine therapy), $354,115 (cyclosporine), and $262,121 (omalizumab). Screening tests were not cost effective, with ICERs of $856,905 (no therapy), $855,764 (antihistamine therapy), $847,483 (cyclosporine), and $627,318 (omalizumab). In the omalizumab-treated subgroup, testing could be cost-effective below $220 or if it resulted in a 0.73% rate of CSU resolution. From a simulated US population perspective, nation-wide screening costs could reach $941,750,741 – $1,833,501,483.

This study concluded that the likelihood of clinical improvement from laboratory testing is very low, and that testing is not cost-effective in people with urticaria. Therefore, it is not recommended to routinely perform laboratory testing in urticaria patients with normal clinical and physical evaluations.

This document is only available for registered healthcare professionals


Eosinopenia, in chronic spontaneous urticaria, is associated with high disease activity, autoimmunity and poor response to treatment

By | Selected articles

Pavel Kolkhir, Martin K. Church, Sabine Altrichter, Per Stahl Skov, Tomasz Hawro, Stefan Frischbutter, Martin Metz, Marcus Maurer.

(2019) The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice

Chronic spontaneous urticaria is characterized by the degranulation of skin mast cells and the influx of basophils and eosinophils to affected skin sites. Blood basopenia has been linked to severe antihistamine-resistant urticaria and type IIb autoimmunity, whereas the role of eosinophils in chronic spontaneous urticaria is largely unknown.

This study analysed the prevalence, role and relevance of eosinopenia of 1613 patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria from two centres. Peripheral blood eosinophil and basophil counts were analysed, and patient files were screened for clinical characteristics, results of laboratory tests, the autologous serum skin test, the serum-induced basophil-histamine release assay, and response to second generation H1-antihistamines and omalizumab.

Ten percent of the patients analysed had eosinopenia. This was also associated with being female, high disease activity, autologous serum skin test and basophil-histamine release assay positivity, low total IgE and high levels of C-reative protein and IgG-anti-TPO. Non-responders to treatment had even lower eosinophils compared to responders. Blood eosinophil counts correlated with basophil counts and 81% of patients with undetectable eosinophils had basopenia.

Investigators concluded that the combination of eosinopenia and basopenia is a better predictor of non-response to sgAHs than eosinopenia alone and that eosinopenia in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria is associated with type IIb autoimmunity, high disease activity and poor response to treatment. This makes eosinophils as excellent biomarkers for the management of people with chronic urticaria.

This document is only available for registered healthcare professionals.


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