Maurer M, Eyerich K, Eyerich S, Ferrer M, Gutermuth J, Hartmann K, Jakob T, Kapp A, Kolkhir P, Larenas-Linnemann D, Park HS, Pejler G, Sánchez-Borges M, Schäkel K, Simon D, Simon HU, Weller K, Zuberbier T, Metz M.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2020 Mar 30:1-13. doi: 10.1159/000507218. [Epub ahead of print] Review.
Chronic urticaria is a heterogeneous persistent, severely debilitating and often poorly controlled disease. Recent studies have shown that the prevalence of CU and its sub forms may be more heterogeneous than previously thought.
This update on chronic urticaria focuses on its prevalence and pathogenesis, the expanding spectrum of patient-reported outcome measures for assessing disease activity, impact and control, as well as future treatment options.
Chronic urticaria is a mast cell-driven disease which presents with transient wheals (hives), angioedema, or both, without any definite triggers and reoccurrence of signs and symptoms for more than six weeks. It is common in both children and adults; its prevalence is increasing with substantial differences across geographical regions.
The objective of treatment in chronic urticaria is complete disease control with absence of signs and symptoms, as well as normalization of quality of life. Specialists can monitor by using sets of patient-reported outcome measures. Antihistamines and omalizumab are the only currently licensed treatments for chronic urticaria. Some inhibit the effects of signals that drive mast cells activation and accumulation, others inhibit intracellular pathways of mast cells activation and degranulation, or silence mast cells by binding to inhibitory receptors.