Chang-Yu Hsieh, Tsen-Fang Tsai
Dermatol Ther (Heidelb). 2021 Apr 12. doi: 10.1007/s13555-021-00524-w. Epub ahead of print.
H1-antihistamines are known for their effects in suppression of pruritus, especially in urticaria. However, there are many other dermatological uses of H1-antihistamines, such as scarring and nonscarring alopecia, acne, Darier disease, eosinophilic dermatoses, paraneoplastic dermatoses, psoriasis, lichen nitidus, radiation dermatitis, skin dysesthesia, and cutaneous malignancies.
This review includes a literature search on articles that report the use of H1-antihistamines.
It is the modulation of the immune system, inflammatory cytokines, and mast cells that explain why H1-antihistamines are effective in some autoimmune conditions, such as Kaposi sarcoma, melanoma, and alopecia areata. Some eosinophilic dermatosis may be relieved with the use of cetirizine and bilastine due to their effects on the chemotaxis of eosinophils. Hydroxyzine, together with GABA receptor agonists, may have an effect on cutaneous dysesthesia. A combination of antihistamines with isotretinoin helps control acne better, probably due to the inhibition of the production of sebum. The reversing vascular effect of histamine seems to be of interest for erythema, edema, and pain control in radiation dermatitis and erythromelalgia.
New properties of antihistamines have also been studied in vitro: antibacterial activity, antiangiogenesis, and antifibrosis.
H1-antihistamines may improve symptoms of some conditions when used alone or in combination with other treatments; however, this evidence is still limited. More studies are needed to assess the efficacy and dosage of H1-antihistamines in other dermatological conditions.