Nukhbat U. Awan, Shahzada K. Sohail, Fatima Naumeri, Shahida Niazi, Khalid Cheema, Samina Qamar, Syeda Fatima Rizvi

Cureus. 2021 Jan 25;13(1): e12911. doi: 10.7759/cureus. 12911..

Allergic rhinitis symptoms include inflammation of the nasal mucosa and affect up to 30-40% of the population with an increasing prevalence. This study’s objective was to assess the relationship between the severity of allergic rhinitis and serum vitamin D and immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels.

This was a case-control study conducted between June and September 2020, which included a total of 224 participants divided into two groups. Group A included 112 participants with moderate to severe asthma symptoms, and group B (control) included 112 participants with mild asthma symptoms after treatment of allergic rhinitis. Both groups were compared by assessing the mean difference between serum IgE and serum vitamin D levels. The relationship was evaluated by logistic regression and odds ratio.

There were 106 female participants (47,3%), with a mean age of 26.78±8.92 years old in group A and 25.72±8.12 years in group B. Mean serum IgE levels were 383.69±154.86 IU/mL for group A and 373.03±106.83 IU/mL for group B (p=0.0001). Mean serum vitamin D levels were 16.24±6.7 ng/mL for group A and 26.92±35 ng/mL for group B (p=0.0001).

Participants with low vitamin D levels were 24 times more likely to develop moderate to severe allergic rhinitis disease. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that IgE levels are increased in moderate to severe allergic rhinitis compared to mild allergic rhinitis. The deficiency of vitamin D is related to increased severity of allergic rhinitis symptoms.

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