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Allergic rhinitis: impact on quality of life of adolescents

Allergic rhinitis: impact on quality of life of adolescents

By | New, Selected articles

C S Rosario

Eur Ann Allergy Clin Immunol . 2020 Nov 12. doi: 10.23822/EurAnnACI.1764-1489.176. Online ahead of print.

One of the faster phases of human development is adolescence, with biological maturity anteceding psychosocial maturity. 15% of young people between 13 and 14 years old suffer from allergic rhinitis, double that of those with 6-7 years old. The prevalence of allergic rhinitis is higher in boys up to 10 years old. It reverses to girls having a higher prevalence during adolescence, and by adulthood, there are no differences in prevalence between genders.

Changes that occur in adolescence have health consequences over the life-course and impact the quality of life. Allergic rhinitis has a significant impact on the quality of life of adolescents and their parents: most antihistamines have sedating effects, school absences, and lower performance due to distraction, fatigue, and irritability. It also has a negative impact on the parents, who may become anxious, overprotective, and need to miss work.

Digital technology is the way to help an original approach to characterize allergic rhinitis signs and symptoms, as well as their connection with other allergic conditions. The treatment’s achievement lies in the partnership between teenagers with allergic rhinitis and mobile technology, letting them have more information available on the disease and its treatment.

In conclusion, there is some knowledge on challenges adolescents with asthma face, but some information lacks allergic rhinitis challenges.

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COVID-19 and allergy: How to take care of allergic patients during a pandemic?

COVID-19 and allergy: How to take care of allergic patients during a pandemic?

By | Artículos seleccionados, New, Selected articles

Antonella Cianferoni, Martina Votto

Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2020 Nov;31 Suppl 26:96-101. doi: 10.1111/pai.13367.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) disease, also known as COVID-19, constitutes a new threat for everybody due to its high infection rate and morbidity and mortality in vulnerable populations. People with allergic rhinitis need continuity of care by allergists during the pandemic. Allergists face the challenge of protecting themselves from becoming infected and providing care to people with allergic rhinitis. They need to be ready to work safely with adequate changes in their practice until either a universal vaccine or herd immunity is achieved. Some of the diseases under the attention of allergists are not considered risk factors but have symptoms such as cough and sneezing in differential diagnosis with COVID-19.

Below is a summary of how to treat specific conditions in the allergy office:

  • Skin testing can be delayed as often information is not essential for the patient’s immediate treatment.
  • Food challenges may be delayed except for peanut challenge in infants or for introducing a food critical for appropriate nutrition to avoid intervention such as a G tube or NG tube placement.
  • Patients on immunotherapy, the administration can be spaced to up to 6 weeks to reduced visits during the pandemic, with the possibility of dose adjustment until the regular schedule is resumed. However, the initiation of immunotherapy should be avoided.
  • Spirometry may cause aerosolization. Therefore, people with COVID-19 or flu-like symptoms should not be tested. All routine testing should be postponed during the pandemic phase.
  • Asthma is a risk factor for severe disease in the case of coronavirus 2 infections. Nevertheless, current recommendations are to continue to follow guidelines of treatment.
  • Patients with allergic rhinitis should continue their treatment. There is no evidence that these patients are at risk of severe complications during a COVID-19 infection. Allergic rhinitis may be evaluated via remote medicine, or telephone and evaluation of allergy may be postponed.

Any suggestions may change rapidly based on the evolving situation of each territory. Limiting in-person visit may have significant financial consequences, and also, at a certain point, delay of procedure may represent a more substantial risk for the patient than the potential risk of being exposed to COVID-19 and should be take under consideration.

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The usage, quality and relevance of information and communications technologies in patients with chronic urticaria:

The usage, quality and relevance of information and communications technologies in patients with chronic urticaria: A UCARE study

By | New, Selected articles

Marcus Maurera, et al.

World Allergy Organ J . 2020 Oct 30;13(11):100475. doi:10.1016/j.waojou.2020.100475. eCollection 2020 Nov.

Chronic urticaria is characterized by itchy wheals, angioedema, or both for six weeks or more. It impacts patients’ physical and emotional quality of life. People with chronic urticaria and other chronic conditions are information seekers from information and communications technologies (ICTs). This study aimed to evaluate the frequency of use and preference of ICTs from chronic urticaria patients.

This was a cross-sectional study that included 1800 patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria or chronic inducible urticaria, over 12 years old, recruited from primary healthcare centers, university hospitals, or specialized clinics UCARE (Urticaria Centers of Reference and Excellence) in 16 countries. Patients were requested to complete a 23-item questionnaire with questions about the use of ICT, including the type, frequency, preference, and quality. Answers were registered in a database. ICTs were then categorized into three groups: one-to-one: SMS, WhatsApp, Skype, and email; one-to-many: YouTube, web browsers, blogs or forums; and many-to-many: Instagram, Twitter, Facebook, and LinkedIn.

Globally, most chronic urticaria had access to ICT platforms (99.6%) and internet access (96.7%). One-to-one ICT platforms were used most often (85.4%), followed by one-to-many ICTs (75.5%) and many-to-many ICTs (59.2%). The use of ICT platforms increased with patient education. One-to-many was preferred for general health information and chronic urticaria information. For chronic urticaria specific information, 3 in every 4 patients used a web browser, 20.9% used YouTube, and 13.6% used Facebook. One in five patients didn’t use any form of ICT. The quality of information was rated as very interesting and of good quality for general health information (53.5%) and CU-related information (51.5%) compared to other categories.

In conclusion, the use of information and communications technologies for health and urticaria specific information is very high in all countries, with web browsers being the preferred platform.

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Cold urticaria what we know and what we do not know

Cold urticaria what we know and what we do not know

By | Artículos seleccionados, New, Selected articles

Natalya Maltseva, et al.

Allergy . 2020 Nov 28. doi: 10.1111/all.14674. Online ahead of print.

Cold urticaria is a subtype of chronic inducible urticaria, characterized by wheals and/or angioedema that occur after cold exposure. It constitutes a challenging clinical problem due to the risk of cold-induced anaphylaxis, its long duration, and diagnostic difficulties with atypical cold urticaria. The classification of cold urticaria includes typical and atypical subtypes. Recent studies and guidelines have progressed its understanding and management.

It is thought to involve the formation of autoallergens and IgE to these autoallergens induced by cold, which provoke a release of mediators from skin mast cells.

It is known that cold-induced wheals develop on rewarming and resolve within an hour and that anaphylaxis can occur. Its diagnosis is based on the patient’s history and cold stimulation testing. Other tests include searching for underlying infections, to be done if the patient has a relevant record. The management of cold urticaria includes avoiding cold, using nonsedating antihistamines, and, if needed, omalizumab.

Questions unanswered include cold urticaria epidemiology, underlying pathomechanisms, clinical heterogeneity, and treatment outcomes.

An international multicenter observational prospective study COLD-CE is being conducted to globally improve the understanding of cold urticaria and cold anaphylaxis, with their pathophysiology representing a research priority. Oropharyngeal angioedema and/or cold anaphylaxis in cold urticaria require further studies of innovative agents. The use of genomic, postgenomic, and machine learning approaches is the next frontier in research leading to novel therapeutic targets.

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nasal allergen challenge in allergic rhinitis

Repetitive nasal allergen challenge in allergic rhinitis: Priming and Th2-type inflammation but no evidence of remodelling

By | Artículos seleccionados, New, Selected articles

Nara Orban, Mikila R Jacobson, Kayhan T Nouri-Aria, Stephen R Durham, Aarif O Eifan

Clin Exp Allergy . 2020 Nov 3. doi: 10.1111/cea.13775. Online ahead of print.

Seasonal allergic rhinitis is characterized by local tissue eosinophilia and Th2-cytokines. Asthma is characterized by airway-remodeling and which conflicts with evidence for remodeling in allergic rhinitis. This study aimed to assess the relationship between allergic inflammation and features of remodeling in allergic rhinitis using a new human repetitive nasal allergen challenge.

This study included twelve patients with moderate-to-severe allergic rhinitis who underwent 5-alternate day challenges with diluent, followed after 4-weeks by 5-alternate day challenges with grass pollen extract. Nasal symptoms, Th1/Th2 cytokines in the nasal secretion, and blood were assessed. Nasal biopsies were taken one day after the first and fifth challenges with diluent and allergen. Sixteen healthy controls were challenged with diluent and allergen once. Epithelial and sub-mucosal inflammatory cells and remodeling markers were assessed by computed image analysis.

Allergic rhinitis symptoms increased after every allergen challenge compared to diluent (p<0.05), with evidence of both clinical and immunological priming. Nasal secretion tissue eosinophils and IL-5 increased significantly after nasal allergen challenge, compared to corresponding diluent challenges. Allergic rhinitis patients evidenced a correlation between submucosal mast cells and the early-phase clinical response and an association between epithelial eosinophils and IL-5 in nasal secretion. There were no differences after allergen challenge concerning epithelial integrity, reticular basement membrane thickness, glandular area, expression of markers of activation of airway-remodeling including α-SMA, HSP-47, extracellular matrix, angiogenesis, and lymphangiogenesis for allergic rhinitis compared to controls.

In conclusion, novel repetitive nasal allergen challenges in people with severe persistent allergic rhinitis yielded in tissue eosinophilia. They increased IL-5, but with no structural changes, which supports no relationship between Th2-inflammation and development of airway-remodeling in allergic rhinitis.

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rinitis

EUFOREA treatment algorithm for allergic rhinitis

By | Artículos seleccionados, Selected articles

P W Hellings, et al.

Rhinology . 2020 Sep 29. doi: 10.4193/Rhin20.246. Online ahead of print.

Allergic rhinitis is the most common chronic inflammatory condition. It affects more than 100 million people living in Europe, with a significant impact on individuals, society, and health economies. Most times, patients prefer to self-manage the condition by visiting pharmacies rather than seeking medical advice due to the long wait for an appointment.

Other difficulties to an effective and appropriate allergic rhinitis treatment include the inability to recognize and diagnose it and adequately prescribe a treatment. Lately, there has been a shift into more patient-approach to allergic rhinitis management, focusing on personalized, predictive, preventative, and participatory strategies.

The European Forum for Research and Education in Allergy and Airway Diseases (EUFOREA) and global key opinion leaders have developed a treatment algorithm to facilitate allergic rhinitis treatment in real-life settings. This guide includes a checklist of what to do when assessing patients, including a list of symptoms suggestive of allergic rhinitis, questions on suspected asthma, and instructions on using the visual scales. It consists of five steps: diagnosis, patients classification, therapy definition, product selection, and treatment plan activation. Patient education is central at all stages and their participation in the decision-making process and goal-setting.

This algorithm is concise, simple to use, suitable for all stakeholders, including pharmacies, primary care physicians, ENT doctors, pulmonologists, allergologists, and pediatricians. It provides evidence-based and expert-endorsed recommendations for the management of allergic rhinitis. The full pocket guide is available on the EUFOREA website (www.euforea.eu).

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urticaria y antihistaminicos H1

Current and emerging pharmacotherapy for chronic spontaneous urticaria: a focus on nonbiological therapeutics

By | Artículos seleccionados, Selected articles

Kam Lun Hon, Joyce T. S. Li, Alexander K.C. Leung, Vivian Lee

Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2020 Sep 29. doi: 10.1080/14656566.2020.1829593. Online ahead of print.

Urticaria is characterized by pruritic wheals of the skin’s superficial layers, which occurs for six weeks or longer, with no apparent cause. It is a condition that reduces the quality of life of the patient and may have a significant economic and social burden. The objective of this revision was to review the guidelines for urticaria management.

According to the joint initiative of the EU-founded network of excellence, the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network, the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology, the World Allergy Organization, and the European Dermatology Forum, management of urticaria should be done in a stepwise manner. Second-generation H1-antihistamines are considered first-line treatment. Whenever symptoms are not adequately controlled, treatment should follow the algorithm. This algorithm includes an increase of the dose of second-generation H1-antihistamines, alongside first-generation H1-antihistamines, H2 antagonists, omalizumab, ciclosporin A, or short-term corticosteroids if needed. New treatments on development include spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitor, Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor, prostaglandin D2 receptor inhibitor, H4-antihistamines, and biologics. Alternative agents include leukotriene receptor antagonists, anticoagulant and antifibrinolytic agents, antidepressants, vitamin D, and other anti-inflammatory or immune-suppressing agents.

According to the authors, second-generation H1-antihistamines should always be considered the first-line therapeutic option for urticaria management. For those who do not respond to a higher dose of H1-antihistamines, guidelines recommend adding omalizumab. Well-designed trials are required to draw clear conclusions.

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asma alergia y covid

ACE2 expression in allergic airway disease may decrease the risk and severity of COVID-19

By | Artículos seleccionados, Selected articles

Sunita Chhapola Shukla

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2020 Oct 6;1-4. doi: 10.1007/s00405-020-06408-7. Online ahead of print.

At the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, allergic rhinitis, allergy, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were considered risk factors because they tend to aggravate during respiratory viral infections and upper respiratory tract symptoms viral infections, allergic rhinitis, and influenza overlap during COVID-19 early stages. This review aimed to revise recent studies published that do not prove that allergy and asthma are risk factors or increase severity for COVID-19.

Recent literature has not shown that airways allergic diseases are a high-risk factor or increase the severity of COVID-19. The reason is that there is a reduction in angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) gene expression in the nose and bronchial cells of allergic airway diseases.

Low ACE2 expression in airway cells of individuals with allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma decreases their susceptibility to COVID-19 and may not be a risk factor for severe infection. However, this is not true for the nonatopic asthma phenotype. More studies are needed to understand the impact of respiratory allergic diseases and T2 inflammatory response on COVID-19 severity and susceptibility. It is essential to continue asthma and allergic rhinitis treatments with inhaled corticosteroids, biologics, and allergen immunotherapy during the COVID-19 pandemic.

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rinithis alercica aerosoles nasales

As-needed versus regular use of fluticasone furoate nasal spray in patients with moderate to severe, persistent, perennial allergic rhinitis: a randomized controlled trial

By | Artículos seleccionados, Selected articles

Torpong Thongngarm, Chamard Wongsa, Phichayut Phinyo, Paraya Assanasen, Pongsakorn Tantilipikorn, Mongkhon Sompornrattanaphan

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract . 2020 Oct 10;S2213-2198(20)31107-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2020.09.057. Online ahead of print.

Allergic rhinitis is one of the most common diseases globally, and its prevalence is up to 50 % in children and 40 % in adults. It has a high economic burden and impacts the quality of life of patients. Allergic rhinitis related to house-dust mites or common indoor allergens is denominated perennial allergic rhinitis. The regular use of intranasal corticosteroids is recommended for the treatment of perennial allergic rhinitis. Due to the lack of studies that evaluate the “as-needed” use of intranasal corticosteroids, this study aimed to compare the efficacy between the as-needed and regular use of these products moderate-to-severe perennial allergic rhinitis.

This randomized controlled trial included 103 participants for six weeks. Participants were assigned to fluticasone furoate nasal spray (27,5 mg), two sprays once daily for one week, followed by as-needed use for five weeks (FF-as-needed) or two sprays once daily for six weeks (FF-regular). The primary endpoint was a change in the total nasal symptom score (TNSS), and secondary endpoints included a change in nasal peak inspiratory flow (NPIF), rhinoconjunctivitis quality of life-36 questionnaire score (RCQ-36), and cumulative fluticasone furoate dose.

Participants were divided into FF-as-needed (n = 51) and FF-regular (n = 52). The mean change of TNSS between the two groups was not significant at six weeks; however, the FF-regular group tendency was to a greater improvement in TNSS. The NPIF mean change was greater in the FF-regular group. Both groups had similar improvements in RCQ-36. The mean cumulative FF dose in the as-needed group was half of the regular group.

In conclusion, perennial allergic rhinitis patients from both groups had similar improvements in TNSS and quality of life, with those from the as-needed group having half of the exposure to intranasal corticosteroids.

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urticaria and covid

Management of urticaria in COVID-19 patients: A systematic review

By | Artículos seleccionados, Selected articles

Eyad Abuelgasim, Ann Christine Modaragamage Dona, Rajan Singh Sondh, Amer Harky

Dermatol Ther. 2020 Sep 28;e14328. doi: 10.1111/dth.14328. Online ahead of print.

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV2), has resulted in an increased healthcare burden, with different symptoms manifesting in other patients. The evidence of skin manifestations similar to urticaria is also growing. The objective of this systematic revision was to review the current literature on urticaria in COVID-19 patients.

According to PRISMA guidelines, investigators carried out an extensive literature search in Medline, EMBASE, Scopus, Cochrane, and Google Scholar, using “COVID-19”, “Coronavirus”, “SARS-CoV-2”, “urticaria”, “angioedema” and “skin rash” until August 2020. Articles related to urticaria and/or angioedema due to COVID-19 and its management and outcome were included.

From the 169 articles returned by the search, 25 of them met the inclusion criteria. These articles were case reports, which related 26 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 with symptoms such as urticaria and/or angioedema. Most patients (69%, n = 16) were over 50 years old. Treatment with antihistamines and/or steroids resolved the symptoms in different time frames, from less than 24 hours to up to 2 weeks. There was no report of recurrent cases of urticaria or non-responsiveness to treatment.

Patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 who develop urticaria symptoms should be managed with antihistamines. The use of a low prednisolone dose should be evaluated according to each patient in the shortest duration possible until symptoms are controlled.

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