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EUFOREA treatment algorithm for allergic rhinitis

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P W Hellings, et al.

Rhinology . 2020 Sep 29. doi: 10.4193/Rhin20.246. Online ahead of print.

Allergic rhinitis is the most common chronic inflammatory condition. It affects more than 100 million people living in Europe, with a significant impact on individuals, society, and health economies. Most times, patients prefer to self-manage the condition by visiting pharmacies rather than seeking medical advice due to the long wait for an appointment.

Other difficulties to an effective and appropriate allergic rhinitis treatment include the inability to recognize and diagnose it and adequately prescribe a treatment. Lately, there has been a shift into more patient-approach to allergic rhinitis management, focusing on personalized, predictive, preventative, and participatory strategies.

The European Forum for Research and Education in Allergy and Airway Diseases (EUFOREA) and global key opinion leaders have developed a treatment algorithm to facilitate allergic rhinitis treatment in real-life settings. This guide includes a checklist of what to do when assessing patients, including a list of symptoms suggestive of allergic rhinitis, questions on suspected asthma, and instructions on using the visual scales. It consists of five steps: diagnosis, patients classification, therapy definition, product selection, and treatment plan activation. Patient education is central at all stages and their participation in the decision-making process and goal-setting.

This algorithm is concise, simple to use, suitable for all stakeholders, including pharmacies, primary care physicians, ENT doctors, pulmonologists, allergologists, and pediatricians. It provides evidence-based and expert-endorsed recommendations for the management of allergic rhinitis. The full pocket guide is available on the EUFOREA website (www.euforea.eu).

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urticaria y antihistaminicos H1

Current and emerging pharmacotherapy for chronic spontaneous urticaria: a focus on nonbiological therapeutics

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Kam Lun Hon, Joyce T. S. Li, Alexander K.C. Leung, Vivian Lee

Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2020 Sep 29. doi: 10.1080/14656566.2020.1829593. Online ahead of print.

Urticaria is characterized by pruritic wheals of the skin’s superficial layers, which occurs for six weeks or longer, with no apparent cause. It is a condition that reduces the quality of life of the patient and may have a significant economic and social burden. The objective of this revision was to review the guidelines for urticaria management.

According to the joint initiative of the EU-founded network of excellence, the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network, the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology, the World Allergy Organization, and the European Dermatology Forum, management of urticaria should be done in a stepwise manner. Second-generation H1-antihistamines are considered first-line treatment. Whenever symptoms are not adequately controlled, treatment should follow the algorithm. This algorithm includes an increase of the dose of second-generation H1-antihistamines, alongside first-generation H1-antihistamines, H2 antagonists, omalizumab, ciclosporin A, or short-term corticosteroids if needed. New treatments on development include spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitor, Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor, prostaglandin D2 receptor inhibitor, H4-antihistamines, and biologics. Alternative agents include leukotriene receptor antagonists, anticoagulant and antifibrinolytic agents, antidepressants, vitamin D, and other anti-inflammatory or immune-suppressing agents.

According to the authors, second-generation H1-antihistamines should always be considered the first-line therapeutic option for urticaria management. For those who do not respond to a higher dose of H1-antihistamines, guidelines recommend adding omalizumab. Well-designed trials are required to draw clear conclusions.

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asma alergia y covid

ACE2 expression in allergic airway disease may decrease the risk and severity of COVID-19

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Sunita Chhapola Shukla

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2020 Oct 6;1-4. doi: 10.1007/s00405-020-06408-7. Online ahead of print.

At the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, allergic rhinitis, allergy, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were considered risk factors because they tend to aggravate during respiratory viral infections and upper respiratory tract symptoms viral infections, allergic rhinitis, and influenza overlap during COVID-19 early stages. This review aimed to revise recent studies published that do not prove that allergy and asthma are risk factors or increase severity for COVID-19.

Recent literature has not shown that airways allergic diseases are a high-risk factor or increase the severity of COVID-19. The reason is that there is a reduction in angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) gene expression in the nose and bronchial cells of allergic airway diseases.

Low ACE2 expression in airway cells of individuals with allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma decreases their susceptibility to COVID-19 and may not be a risk factor for severe infection. However, this is not true for the nonatopic asthma phenotype. More studies are needed to understand the impact of respiratory allergic diseases and T2 inflammatory response on COVID-19 severity and susceptibility. It is essential to continue asthma and allergic rhinitis treatments with inhaled corticosteroids, biologics, and allergen immunotherapy during the COVID-19 pandemic.

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rinithis alercica aerosoles nasales

As-needed versus regular use of fluticasone furoate nasal spray in patients with moderate to severe, persistent, perennial allergic rhinitis: a randomized controlled trial

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Torpong Thongngarm, Chamard Wongsa, Phichayut Phinyo, Paraya Assanasen, Pongsakorn Tantilipikorn, Mongkhon Sompornrattanaphan

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract . 2020 Oct 10;S2213-2198(20)31107-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2020.09.057. Online ahead of print.

Allergic rhinitis is one of the most common diseases globally, and its prevalence is up to 50 % in children and 40 % in adults. It has a high economic burden and impacts the quality of life of patients. Allergic rhinitis related to house-dust mites or common indoor allergens is denominated perennial allergic rhinitis. The regular use of intranasal corticosteroids is recommended for the treatment of perennial allergic rhinitis. Due to the lack of studies that evaluate the “as-needed” use of intranasal corticosteroids, this study aimed to compare the efficacy between the as-needed and regular use of these products moderate-to-severe perennial allergic rhinitis.

This randomized controlled trial included 103 participants for six weeks. Participants were assigned to fluticasone furoate nasal spray (27,5 mg), two sprays once daily for one week, followed by as-needed use for five weeks (FF-as-needed) or two sprays once daily for six weeks (FF-regular). The primary endpoint was a change in the total nasal symptom score (TNSS), and secondary endpoints included a change in nasal peak inspiratory flow (NPIF), rhinoconjunctivitis quality of life-36 questionnaire score (RCQ-36), and cumulative fluticasone furoate dose.

Participants were divided into FF-as-needed (n = 51) and FF-regular (n = 52). The mean change of TNSS between the two groups was not significant at six weeks; however, the FF-regular group tendency was to a greater improvement in TNSS. The NPIF mean change was greater in the FF-regular group. Both groups had similar improvements in RCQ-36. The mean cumulative FF dose in the as-needed group was half of the regular group.

In conclusion, perennial allergic rhinitis patients from both groups had similar improvements in TNSS and quality of life, with those from the as-needed group having half of the exposure to intranasal corticosteroids.

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urticaria and covid

Management of urticaria in COVID-19 patients: A systematic review

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Eyad Abuelgasim, Ann Christine Modaragamage Dona, Rajan Singh Sondh, Amer Harky

Dermatol Ther. 2020 Sep 28;e14328. doi: 10.1111/dth.14328. Online ahead of print.

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV2), has resulted in an increased healthcare burden, with different symptoms manifesting in other patients. The evidence of skin manifestations similar to urticaria is also growing. The objective of this systematic revision was to review the current literature on urticaria in COVID-19 patients.

According to PRISMA guidelines, investigators carried out an extensive literature search in Medline, EMBASE, Scopus, Cochrane, and Google Scholar, using “COVID-19”, “Coronavirus”, “SARS-CoV-2”, “urticaria”, “angioedema” and “skin rash” until August 2020. Articles related to urticaria and/or angioedema due to COVID-19 and its management and outcome were included.

From the 169 articles returned by the search, 25 of them met the inclusion criteria. These articles were case reports, which related 26 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 with symptoms such as urticaria and/or angioedema. Most patients (69%, n = 16) were over 50 years old. Treatment with antihistamines and/or steroids resolved the symptoms in different time frames, from less than 24 hours to up to 2 weeks. There was no report of recurrent cases of urticaria or non-responsiveness to treatment.

Patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 who develop urticaria symptoms should be managed with antihistamines. The use of a low prednisolone dose should be evaluated according to each patient in the shortest duration possible until symptoms are controlled.

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